Harrowed by tractor between the rows and hoed by hand between the vines
I have just returned from a three day visit to Macedonia, where the use of herbicides appears to be limited, although none of the eight leading wineries I visited is organic. Where herbicides are used then it is mainly between the vines. It is true that labour is cheap in Macedonia, so hand hoeing is possible and the heat of the summer will kill off much of the vegetation. However, the vineyards are a pleasure to visit and those from Touraine (classified patrimoine mondial) are a sad contrast. Unfortunately blitzed vineyards are all too common in France.
The photos suffice!